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Ferghana valley

History of Golden Valley – Ferghana, Namangan, Andijan and Kokand

This is the great oasis surrounded by Kuramin mountain ridge in the Northwest, Chatkal mountain ridge in the North, Ferghana Mountain ridge in the East, and Alay and Turkistan ridges in the South. In ancient times the exceptional flora of the region gave Ferghana Valley the name “Golden Valley”. First ancient settlements in Ferghana Valley appeared 5-6 thousand years ago. It’s assumed that Ferghana of the 6th – 4th cc. AD was in cultural relations with South and southwestern civilizations.

In the 2nd c. AD the Great Silk Road took its beginning through Ferghana Valley and connected China and the Mediterranean region.
In the 2nd c. AD the ancient capital of Davan was Aershi, the city where the Chinese emperor’s embassy was located. The Chinese embassy made an agreement on the inauguration of the Great Silk Road.
In the 2nd – 4th BC in Aershi there was a discord with China, resulting in the war between China and Davan.
In the 7th- 8th cc. Arabs conquered Ferghana valley.
In the 715 near Kasan city they killed Kuteyba-ibn-Muslim. He was the subjugator of ancient Sogd and Khoresm and the governor-general of Kharassan and Maverannakhr.
In the 8th - 9th the Samanids came to power in Ferghana Valley.
In the 9th - 11th cc. The new capital of Ferghana valley was Akhsikent, where the production of high quality steel was properly organized.
At the beginning of the 12th c. Khoresm khan Muhammad accomplished the invasion to Ferghana.
12th c. is the time of Mongols’ invasion. The valley was ravaged.
In the 14th c. the Temurids came to power. Ferghana became Temur’s favorite place of residence.
In the 16th c. under Babur’s reign the capital was moved to Andijan.
In 16th c. Sheibanid khan annexed Ferghana to the Uzbek state.
In 1700 the Sheibanids were overthrown. Kokand became the capital of the new state.
In 1875 the Kokand Khanate as the Ferghana region was annexed to Russia by force.
In 1874-1876 Pulat-khan launched the revolt against tsarist Russia. After the revolution of 1917 the national demarcation caused Ferghana valley be divided among the Uzbek, Tajik and Kyrgyz republics. Uzbekistan part includes 3 regions – Ferghana, Andijan and Namangan.


Ferghana

Ferghana city is the administrative center of Ferghana region. Its territory is 70 sq. km and the population is 230 thousand people. The city is situated at an altitude of 580 m above sea level. There are more than 20 nations and nationalities in Ferghana city.

The climate of the valley is typical with short winters, early warm springs, hot dry summers and mild autumns and light frosts and rains followed by occasional snowfalls. The average temperature in summer rises up to 40 C in July, in winter in January drops to 10 C below zero. Annual precipitation in Ferghana is about 174 mm. Ferghana city is green and that’s why local population calls it “The sleeping Beauty”, “The Gem of Central Asia”.

The history of the city dates back to 1877. It was decided to build a new city 12 km from the old town of Margilan. The constructions of the city began in autumn 1877 and initially it was named as Nov Margilan or New Margilan. M.D. Skobelev was appointed as the first general-governor of Ferghana region.

There is a Military Fortress, which occupies a large space. Three streets are stretched from this fortress to the northwest and to the west. Local authorities pay much attention to greening the city. So on the first day of foundation of the city more than ten thousand trees were planted and 70% out of it were plane trees. In the center of the city there is a park. The architect Zhilin led the construction of the city
General-Governor’s House (now the Drama theatre), the House of Governor’s assistant (now a hospital), Military Administration Building (now the Officers’ House), Men’s Gymnasium (Administrative Office of the Ferghana University) make up an architectural ensemble of the city. The majority of the city populations were Russian service man and officials. In 1900 the population of the city made 6,518 people, in 1913-11,892. In 1907 the city was renamed as Skobelev in the honor of the first Governor of Ferghana region and the founder of the city. Since 1924 the city is named as Ferghana.

At present Ferghana is an important industrial center of Uzbekistan. There are more than 40 large and medium industrial enterprises. Regarding the capacity of production Ferghana is in the second place in Uzbekistan after Tashkent. During the years of independence of Uzbekistan the construction continued in Ferghana. The Gates of the city were built in 1992. The height of the gates is 14 m, the length is 26 m. By the decision of regional Khokim (the Mayor of the region) the Gates were named as “the independence Gates”.

NamanganNamangan: near Rail station
is known as a site, sprang in the year of 1610 at Namangankan settlement (a Salt Mine). It situated near small Salt Lake. In the year of 1757 Namangan became an administrative region center.

At the end of the 19th and the beginning of 20th centuries it was the second center by its population and so it was a cotton-ginning center of the Ferghana Valley too. At the same time religious buildings appeared there (Medressa Mullo Kyrgyz, Khoja Amin mausoleum and others, that remained till present).

Today Namangan is developing as a center of light industry and food industry. The city is rolled in green fruit orchards and parks.

The ruins of ancient Aksikent City are situated near Namangan. Archeological research of last few years showed, that Aksikent belong to new model of cities, that inNamangan citycontradiction to early-ancient ones, would have a citadel and mighty fortress walls. Findings have shown, that handicraft center by a wall, and a huge ditch protected the city itself. Till the 13th century Aksikent was the capital of the Ferghana Valley. Mongols twice ruined the city, as well as, it was ruined by a big magnitude earthquake of the 17th century, after that inhabitants had to migrate to the city of Namangan.

Kokand
is situated in the western part of Ferghana valley and it was its capital from 1709 to 1876. Kokand sits at 100 km from Ferghana City, at an altitude of 405 meters above sea level. Its territory is 65 sq. km. The Great Silk Road played major role in development of the city.

Territory of the Kokand Khanate included nearly of whole territory of present Uzbekistan. Kokand Khanate was a powerful and mighty state. There were 29 Khans in the history of the Khanate. It was the second religious center of Central Asia after Bukhara. There were 35 medressas and 100 mosques in the city. The most outstanding ruler in the history of the Kokand Khanate was its last Khan-Hudoyar. In 1845 the 12-year boy became the son-in-low of Mingboshi Musalmonkul, who thrones Hudoyar in Kokand. From 1845 to 1876 just before the annexation of the Kokand Khanate to Russia, Hudoyar-khan was the ruler of the state and hi lost his position four times and won it back.

Many mosques and medressas were built during Hudoyar-khan’s reign.

Hudoyar had 4 wife’s (and 40 concubines), and those from Bukhara, Khiva and Iran were the most beautiful ones. He had four sons and two daughters. His eldest son Nasretdinbek born in 1850 became the ruler of Andijan.

In the second half of the 19th century the relations between Bukhara, Khiva and the Kokand Khanate became worse and they started fighting for gaining power. So that struggle caused weakness of these states and the Russian Army at the head of General Chernyaev and Von Kaufman easily conquered them. Gradually they seized Turkistan, Chimkent, Tashkent, Djizzak, Uratepa, and Khojand and in 1868 according to an agreement the Khan of Kokand became a vassal of the Russian Empire. In 1875 Hudoyar-khan with his wife Farang reached Tashkent under the protection of Russian detachment of 30 Cossacks. Hudoyar handed the seal and other attributes of the Khanate to the General Von Kaufman Later on Hudoyar-khan escaped to Afghanistan with his family and his treasures. Kokand Khanate is known in the history for 170 years. Ferghana region was founded on the territory of the Kokand Khanate.

At present in some Russian museums you can see jewelry belonging to the Kokand Khanate epoch. For example, Hudoyar’s throne is kept now in Hermitage (St. Petersburg) museum.

Andijan

Surrounded by high mountains and hills Andijan is situated in the South-East of Ferghana valley.

Andijan is one of the ancient cities of Uzbekistan, dating back to the 9th century a.d. It seats on the caravan route linking China with Central Asia. In ancient times the Great Silk Road passed though this town, which was know as the Eastern gate to Ferghana valley. All along the Route on the banks of Kara-Darya River there were caravansaries with blacksmiths ready to render their services to merchants. New settlements and town started sprinkling up here, so new handicrafts started developing. In the 10th century Andijan was the part of the Samanids Empire. In 1483 Zahriddin Babur was born here (that’s why it is historically famous), and Andijan was the capital of the Ferghana State and its main Silk Road trading center. After Ferghana State he had to go to Afghanistan and he ruled Kabul for two decades, then in 1526 he marched into Delhi and found in India Moguls Empire. The dynasty of Baburids ruled India more than 300 years.
Ancient site of Ershi (now known as Ming-Tepa site)-capital of ancient state of Davan is situated 30 km. from Andijan.
There are institutes, a medicine university, technical schools and three theatres in Andijan.
Andijan is one of the biggest industrial centers of Uzbekistan. There are cotton mills, spinning mills and shoe factories, electric lamps factory, etc.
After the independence of Uzbekistan a creation of Uzbek-Korean Joint Venture “UzDaewoo” automobile manufacturing plant was planned to be built in Asaka, a town seated just 12 km from Andijan. Now it is manufacturing different modifications of cars: “Matiz”, “Damas”, “Nexia”, “Leganza” and “Lacetti”.

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