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This is the great oasis surrounded by Kuramin mountain ridge in the Northwest, Chatkal mountain ridge in the North, Ferghana Mountain ridge in the East, and Alay and Turkistan ridges in the South. In ancient times the exceptional flora of the region gave Ferghana Valley the name “Golden Valley”. First ancient settlements in Ferghana Valley appeared 5-6 thousand years ago. It’s assumed that Ferghana of the 6th – 4th cc. AD was in cultural relations with South and southwestern civilizations.
In the 2nd c. AD the Great Silk Road took its beginning through Ferghana Valley and connected China and the Mediterranean region.
At present Ferghana is an important industrial center of Uzbekistan. There are more than 40 large and medium industrial enterprises. Regarding the capacity of production Ferghana is in the second place in Uzbekistan after Tashkent. During the years of independence of Uzbekistan the construction continued in Ferghana. The Gates of the city were built in 1992. The height of the gates is 14 m, the length is 26 m. By the decision of regional Khokim (the Mayor of the region) the Gates were named as “the independence Gates”.
At the end of the 19th and the beginning of 20th centuries it was the second center by its population and so it was a cotton-ginning center of the Ferghana Valley too. At the same time religious buildings appeared there (Medressa Mullo Kyrgyz, Khoja Amin mausoleum and others, that remained till present).
Today Namangan is developing as a center of light industry and food industry. The city is rolled in green fruit orchards and parks.
The ruins of ancient Aksikent City are situated near Namangan. Archeological research of last few years showed, that Aksikent belong to new model of cities, that incontradiction to early-ancient ones, would have a citadel and mighty fortress walls. Findings have shown, that handicraft center by a wall, and a huge ditch protected the city itself. Till the 13th century Aksikent was the capital of the Ferghana Valley. Mongols twice ruined the city, as well as, it was ruined by a big magnitude earthquake of the 17th century, after that inhabitants had to migrate to the city of Namangan.
Territory of the Kokand Khanate included nearly of whole territory of present Uzbekistan. Kokand Khanate was a powerful and mighty state. There were 29 Khans in the history of the Khanate. It was the second religious center of Central Asia after Bukhara. There were 35 medressas and 100 mosques in the city. The most outstanding ruler in the history of the Kokand Khanate was its last Khan-Hudoyar. In 1845 the 12-year boy became the son-in-low of Mingboshi Musalmonkul, who thrones Hudoyar in Kokand. From 1845 to 1876 just before the annexation of the Kokand Khanate to Russia, Hudoyar-khan was the ruler of the state and hi lost his position four times and won it back.
Many mosques and medressas were built during Hudoyar-khan’s reign.
Hudoyar had 4 wife’s (and 40 concubines), and those from Bukhara, Khiva and Iran were the most beautiful ones. He had four sons and two daughters. His eldest son Nasretdinbek born in 1850 became the ruler of Andijan.
In the second half of the 19th century the relations between Bukhara, Khiva and the Kokand Khanate became worse and they started fighting for gaining power. So that struggle caused weakness of these states and the Russian Army at the head of General Chernyaev and Von Kaufman easily conquered them. Gradually they seized Turkistan, Chimkent, Tashkent, Djizzak, Uratepa, and Khojand and in 1868 according to an agreement the Khan of Kokand became a vassal of the Russian Empire. In 1875 Hudoyar-khan with his wife Farang reached Tashkent under the protection of Russian detachment of 30 Cossacks. Hudoyar handed the seal and other attributes of the Khanate to the General Von Kaufman Later on Hudoyar-khan escaped to Afghanistan with his family and his treasures. Kokand Khanate is known in the history for 170 years. Ferghana region was founded on the territory of the Kokand Khanate.
At present in some Russian museums you can see jewelry belonging to the Kokand Khanate epoch. For example, Hudoyar’s throne is kept now in Hermitage (St. Petersburg) museum.
Surrounded by high mountains and hills Andijan is situated in the South-East of Ferghana valley.
Andijan is one of the ancient cities of Uzbekistan, dating back to the 9th century a.d. It seats on the caravan route linking China with Central Asia. In ancient times the Great Silk Road passed though this town, which was know as the Eastern gate to Ferghana valley. All along the Route on the banks of Kara-Darya River there were caravansaries with blacksmiths ready to render their services to merchants. New settlements and town started sprinkling up here, so new handicrafts started developing. In the 10th century Andijan was the part of the Samanids Empire. In 1483 Zahriddin Babur was born here (that’s why it is historically famous), and Andijan was the capital of the Ferghana State and its main Silk Road trading center. After Ferghana State he had to go to Afghanistan and he ruled Kabul for two decades, then in 1526 he marched into Delhi and found in India Moguls Empire. The dynasty of Baburids ruled India more than 300 years.
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